A review of anterior cruciate ligament injuries and reconstructive techniques. Part 1: Basic science
Nandra R., Najran P., Matharu GS., Porter K., Ashraf T., Greaves I.
Anterior cruciate ligament rupture is a common soft tissue knee injury, often affecting young athletic individuals keen to return to pre-injury levels of function. Increasing sporting activity is reflected by an increasing incidence of anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Although treatment has advanced considerably over the years, there are still a number of contentious issues that are considered in this review. The anterior cruciate ligament is a dense band of connective tissue, comprising an anteromedial and posterolateral bundle based on tibial insertion sites. It is important to appreciate the position and orientation of these bundles at the time of reconstructive surgery. The bundles, with their load sharing behaviour through knee flexion, affect antero-posterior and rotational stability of the knee. In the first part of this review, we consider the clinical presentation of anterior cruciate ligament injury and relevant anatomy, knee kinematics, mechanism of injury and incidence of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. © 2013, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.