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The aims of treatment of anterior cruciate ligament rupture are to eliminate pain, restore stability and allow early return to activity while preventing early degeneration. Ruptures can be treated conservatively, which requires careful patient selection and avoidance of high-risk activity. Each patient must be treated on an individual basis with consideration given to the level of activity, desire to return to sport, donor site morbidity and compliance with post-operative regimes. Through the evolution of single incision, arthroscopic anatomic reconstruction, our knowledge of the native anterior cruciate ligament anatomy and knee kinematics has progressed. The current gold standard uses four-stranded hamstring autograft with endobutton and interference screw fixation. Double-bundle reconstruction is technically challenging with greater risk and best reserved for larger knees with larger native ligaments. Although treatment has advanced considerably over the years, there are still a number of contentious issues which are considered in this review. Part two of this review discusses the short- and long-term objectives of surgery, the indications and timing of surgery, different graft materials, tunnel positions and rehabilitation programmes. We also evaluate the role of anatomical reconstruction and single- versus double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. © 2013, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.

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116 - 127